Saturday, April 13, 2024

Chapter 1 “French Revolution”

Q.1. What were the social, economic, and political conditions of Russia before 1905?

(i) Social Conditions: European countries made significant social changes during the 19th century, but the foundation of the Russian Federation was still in power.
(a) The society was divided into two classes: the rights category, which consisted of successful and powerful people who had all the political and other rights.
(b) The rights group, which included farmers and workers, made up about 90% of the Russian population. They had to work hard to achieve both goals.

(ii) Economic conditions:
(a) The industrial and agricultural decline was the cause of the Russian revolution.
(b) The farmers had to pay a heavy price for the land they received. Their property was small and they did not have the resources to develop the land. Therefore, from time to time, they even divided their property among themselves and distributed the proceeds according to the efforts and needs of the various families. Employees can be divided into three categories. The ‘State Industries’ were run by farmers from the valleys.
(c) The ‘Professional Industries’ were used by skilled workers based in cities. The ‘Manual Factories’ were landowners and operated in their respective areas.
(d) Women were generally employed in factories, but were paid much less than men.

(iii) Political conditions:
(a) Tsar Nicholas II was an inactive and short-sighted man. He was a cruel ruler, not caring about the welfare or welfare of his people.
(b) The general public or their representatives did not participate in the political process of the country.

Q.2. In what ways were Russian workers different from other European countries, prior to 1917?
Answers. The number of people working in Russia was very different from other European countries in the following ways:
(i) About 85% of Russians, even in the early 20th century, were agriculturista. This part was much higher than in other European countries.
(ii) Farmers are divided into groups. These divisions were compounded by religious sentiment. Unlike European farmers, Russian farmers were disrespectful to the authorities. They wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them. They refused to pay the rent and even killed the landlords.
(iii) Unlike European farmers, they were social workers. They divided their land from time to time and divided their society according to individual needs.
(iv) Unlike Europe, Russia, workers are divided into social groups. Diversity was based on skills. ‘State Industries’, ‘Professional Industries and Teaching Industries’ were the three categories in which Russian workers were divided.
(v) The condition of the factory workers was not good. They have not been able to form any trade unions or political parties to air their grievances. Industrialists exploit workers for their selfish ends. There were no working hours, so they had to work 12-15 hours a day.

Q.3. Why did the Tsarist empire collapse in 1917?
Answers. The Tsarist democracy collapsed in 1917 because of the interdependence of many social, economic, and political elements that stood as follows:
(i) The Russian state under Tsar Nicholas II was not fully suited to the needs of modern times. The Tsar still believed in the sovereign sovereign right of the king.
(Ii) The bureaucracy hired by the Tsar was very difficult, ineffective and inconsistent. Members are recruited on the basis of rights and support, not justly.
(iii) The Tsar formed a great empire and placed the Russian language and culture in various nations.
(iv) The farmers and workers who make up the majority of the population were sad and frustrated. The Tsar were completely ignorant, indifferent to their circumstances and needs.
(V) Tsar Nicholas II imposed restrictions on political activity, changed voting rules and revoked any questions or restrictions on his authority.
(vi) At the beginning of the First World War, people gathered around Tsar. But as the war progressed, he refused to negotiate with the larger groups at Duma. Thus, he lost support. The Russian army lost the battle. This has resulted in more than 3 million refugees in Russia, making the situation worse. It exposed the government’s economic collapse and increased its debt to the already poor.
Free western ideas and the growth of socialist ideology led to the formation of many socialist groups that included workers and farmers a spirit of transformation.

Q.4.Make two lists: One with major events and consequences of the February Revolution and one with major events and implications for the October Revolution. Write a paragraph about who was involved in each other, who were the leaders and what was each influence in Soviet history?
Answers. Highlights of the February Revolution:
The main events of the February Revolution were as follows:
(i) In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were difficult.
(ii) In the capital, workers’ and industrial settlements were located on the right bank of the Neva River. To the left was the Winter Palace and the official buildings, including the palace where the Duma family met.
(iii) In February 1917, food shortages became increasingly evident in the workplace. Winters were cold and intense.
(iv) Parliamentarians wishing to preserve the elected government, opposed Tsar’s desire to dismantle Duma.
(v) On 22 February, the closure took place in a factory on the right bank. The next day, workers in the 50 factories called for a strike of sympathy when most of them were women.

Impacts of the February Revolution: The effects of the February Revolution can be understood by the following points:
(1) The Soviet leaders and the Duma leaders formed a provisional government to govern the country.
(ii) The future of Russia will be determined by a special convention convened on the basis of the right of older persons worldwide.
(iii) Restrictions on community and association meetings were removed.
(iv) In April 1917. Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from exile. He made three demands known as ‘April Theses’.
These requirements were:
(a) the war will end,
(b) the land is transferred to farmers, and
(c) state-owned banks.

Impact of the February Revolution on Soviet History:
The February Revolution did not have a leading political party. It was led by the people themselves. Petrograd had overthrown the king and thus gained an important place in Soviet history.

The main events of the October Revolution were as follows:
(i) As the conflict between the Interim Government and the Bolsheviks escalated. Lenin fears that the Interim Government will establish a dictatorship.
(ii) He started a rebellion against the government and rallied the Bolshevik supporters.
(iii) On 16 October 1917, Lenin appealed to the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to allow the seizure of social power.
(iv) The Military Reform Committee was appointed by the Soviet Union under Leon Trotskii to organize the kidnapping.
(v) The uprising began on 24 October. Prime Minister Kerenskii had left the city. In the morning, soldiers loyal to the government seized the building of two Bolshevik newspapers.
(vi) In a quick response, the Military Transformation Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. The Aurora ship attacked the Winter Palace. By evening, the city was under committee and the ministers had resigned.

October Revolution results:
The results of the October Revolution were as follows:
(i) The Bolsheviks were totally against personal property. Therefore, the private property used for production was eliminated. Land and other means of production were declared national assets.
(ii) Many industries and banks were state-owned in November, 1917.
(iii) The land was declared public property and farmers were allowed to take arable land.
(iv) In the cities, the Bolsheviks enforce the division of large houses according to the needs of the family.
(v) They forbade the use of old aristocracy titles.
(vi) The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party.

Impact of the October Revolution in Soviet history:
The October Revolution was largely led by Lenin and his subordinate Trotskii and involved the masses who supported these leaders. It marked the beginning of Lenin’s reign over the Soviet Union, with the Bolsheviks under his control.

Q.5. What major changes did the Bolsheviks bring immediately after the October Revolution?
Answers. The Bolsheviks soon made the following changes after the October Revolution:
(i) The right to personal property was revoked.
(ii) They include most industries and banks nationally.
(iii) The land was declared public property and farmers were allowed to take arable land
(iv) In the cities, the Bolsheviks enforced the division of large houses according to family requirement.
(v) They forbade the use of old aristocracy titles.
(vi) To ensure change, a new uniform was made for the army and officers, such as the Soviet helmet.
(vii) The Bolshevik Party renamed itself the Russian Communist Party.
(viii) The whole Russian Congress of Soviets became a national parliament.

Q.6. Write a few lines to show what you know:
(a) Kulaks
(b) The Dumas
(c) Women workers between 1900 and 1930
(d) Free
(e) Stalin’s collection plan.
Answers. (a) Kulaks: It is a term used for well-off farmers in Russia. In Stalin’s time, it was decided to eliminate Kulaks to improve modern farms, and to run them in industrial lines mechanically.
(b) Duma: Duma was the elected Consultative Parliament. It was created by the Tsar during the Revolution of 1905, but later destroyed the Duma because it did not want to be questioned about its authority or the reduction of its power.
(c) Female workers between 1900 and 1930: Female workers in Russia made up 31% of factory workers in 1914. They formed a class without rights, they had no political status or political rights. They were discriminated against, paid less than men, that is, between one-third and one-quarter of a person’s salary. Women, however, were at the forefront of conflicts and strikes for better and equitable wages, improved working conditions for 8 hours a day, reinstatement and voting rights. They were a source of inspiration to their male colleagues. On February 23, 1917, women led the strike as a recognition of their active and important role. February 23 is celebrated as International Women’s Day.
(d) Liberals: Liberals wanted to bring about change in society. They wanted a nation that could tolerate all religions. They were fighting against the unruly power of the imperial rulers. They wanted to protect human rights against the government. They also wanted an independent body to interpret the law. However, they were not democratic. They did not believe in the universal franchise of adults. They felt that only the person in charge of the area could vote. They also did not want voting rights granted to women.
(e) Stalin’s integration program: In 1927-1928, there was a severe shortage of grain in cities in Soviet Russia. Stalin introduced a strong emergency initiative known as the integration process. Since 1929

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